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Salvatore "Salvie" Testa, (1956 - September 14, 1984), nicknamed The Crowned Prince of the Philadelphia Mob, was a Philadelphia gangster who served as a hitman for the Scarfo crime family during a period of internal gang conflict. The son of former Philadelphia boss Philip Testa, Testa was a rising star in the mob until he was killed on orders from Nicodemo Scarfo
Early life Edit
Born in 1956 in Southwest Philadelphia, Testa was the son of Philip Testa a member of the Philadelphia family that served under Angelo Bruno and Alfia Arcidiacono (1926–1980). He had one sister Maria born 1954 who managed a Center City, Philadelphia nightclub and restaurant. In 1974 he graduated from Saint John Neumann High School (Pennsylvania) and had been sheltered from organized crime activity as a youth. His sister Maria married Scarfo mob associate and 'front man' Robert Sheeran who was listed as the officer of ETTENAJ Corporation which held the liquor license for Phil's restaurant Virgilio's along with Frank Narducci's sister-in-law Jeanette Hearn. In 1978, Maria became the sole corporate officer. Seven months following the murder of Phil, the liquor license was sold. (HOW CAN PHIL BE MURDERED IN THE PREVIOUS SENTENCE, THEN PROMOTED TO UNDERBOSS IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCE?) Their father Philip was promoted to underboss after Ignazio Denaro, died of old age, in turn Phil promoted drug trafficker Peter Casella to fill his role as underboss. He had an office in the back of the restaurant out of which he operated his legitimate and illegitimate business enterprises. Testa's mother Alfia died of natural causes in 1980, in that same year, in March 1980, longtime family boss Angelo Bruno was murdered and Testa's father became boss by unanimous decision from the National Crime Syndicate and the support of the crime family itself in 1981. The death of his father's predecessor, Angelo Bruno triggered a violent civil war in the family between factions loyal to Harry Riccobene and Nicodemo Scarfo, who controlled the family's Atlantic City, New Jersey operations.
He was a ruggedly handsome 210-pound man who stood 6 feet tall with hazel eyes and real long lashes and dimpled cheeks. He has a close physical resemblance to the actor Peter DeLuise. He wore his wavy hair out over his ears in typical 1970s fashion and was known to wear track suits and double breasted suits, he enjoyed wearing a 10-gallon cowboy hat and leather cowboy boots. He reportedly had dark emotionless eyes and gave off the appearance of a great white shark with a scowl that made press photographers back away from him when looking to get his picture. Some crime writers have compared Testa to Christopher Walken's character Frank White in King of New York. He attended Temple University, a university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania for a year, and then went into the real estate business. Philadelphia Inquirer reporter Susan Caba said that Salvatore had a narrow, solemn face like that of his sister Maria.
Family mob relations Edit
His grandfather and namesake was Salvatore, born around 1891 in Messina who died of natural causes in 1950. His father was Bruno crime family underboss Philip Testa and his mother Alfia were Catholic. They chose to have Nicodemo Scarfo and his second wife 'Domencia' chosen as Salvatore's godparents. The ceremony was held at St. Paul's Catholic Church. Salvatore would become a close childhood friend of future Scarfo crime family made man Joseph (Joe Pung) Pungitore Jr., the younger brother of Anthony (Anthony Pung) Pungitore who would both follow Testa into a life of organized crime and serve under his father, Salvatore Merlino, and later Nicky Scarfo. Growing up in South Philadelphia, Salvatore became friends with future crime family underboss Salvatore Merlino, Scarfo's nephew and future underboss Phil Leonetti, brothers Joseph and Salvatore Grande, Salvatore (Torry) Scafidi, the son of John Scafidi, a capo who served under his father Phil.
Relationship with father Philip Edit
Salvatore had a close relationship with his father and became involved with him in the rackets of drug trafficking, loansharking and extortion. Mob informant Nicholas Caramandi said, "Salvie was all for 'this thing'. Knew it inside out. Knew it better than guys who were sixty years old and who'd been in it for forty years. Because of his father. He'd been a good teacher. Salvie had nerve and he didn't care who he killed. Sometimes we used to go [on a contract] and we'd come back and tell him, "Well, the kids were in the car, the family's in the car.' "I don't care who's in the car', he'd say. 'Everybody goes.' That's the kind of guy he was. One Thanksgiving Day he wanted use to go into Mario Riccobene's house where Robert Riccobene was havin' dinner with his family. 'Shoot everybody in the house'. But he and Charles Iannece and Francis Iannarella made up some story that he didn't show up. Just to appease Salvie. 'Cause we didn't go for killing kids. It was something we drew a line with, but he (Testa) was just so full of venom that he didn't care. He was a guy made for 'this thing.' He loved it. He lived it. And he was very bitter about what happened to his father (Philip), about the way his father got killed, blown up with nails in him." Despite the close relationship with his father, Salvatore sister's Maria would later tell the Philadelphia Inquirer that it was she, and not Salvatore that made the funeral arrangements for their father after he was murdered, as she had with their mother Alfia and later, her brother in 1984.
Alcohol Control Board problems Edit
He and Frank Narducci, Jr. in 1977 were revealed to have arranged for fronts and the New Jersey Alcohol control Board found that Testa and Narducci Jr. did not have the independent resources to finance a $250,000 purchase of the license, business and property of Le Bistro at 2201 Pacific Avenue in Atlantic City and were acting as fronts for their fathers, Frank Narducci Sr. and Philip Testa, who were both precluded from having any interest in a liquor license because of their criminal history.
Criminal behaviour Edit
After Salvatore murdered Frank (Chickie) Narducci Sr., the mobster that orchestrated his father's death and headed the coup of the Scarfo crime family, Caramandi said, "Salvie used to say to me, "I wish that motherfucker was alive so I could kill him again." This is how much he hated this man. He had no mercy on anybody. Business was business, and killing to him was business". George Anastasia wrote, "Salvatore Testa loved it all, the stalkings, the murders, even the Enrico Riccobene suicide. He was the South Philadelphia equivalent of a Main Line blue blood. He was born to be a wiseguy." During the Philadelphia Mob War, Nick Caramandi said, "He'd never ask you to do something he wouldn't do himself. He was right out there with you (on murder contracts)."
Made into the crime family Edit
On June 8, 1980 Philip Testa held a Cosa Nostra initiation ceremony at the South Philadelphia home of mob captain John Cappello. At the ceremony, Phil inducted Scarfo's nephew Phil Leonetti, Salvatore Merlino, Robert (Bobby) Lumio, Anthony (Blonde Babe) Pungitore Sr., the father of future Scarfo soldiers Michael and Anthony, Salvatore (Wayne) Grande, Frank (Little Frankie) Narducci Jr., Anthony (Tony) Casella, the brother of drug trafficker Peter Casella and Phil's only son, Salvatore. In January 1982, at the same induction ceremony of Andrew DelGiorno, Francis Iannarella, Pasquale Spirito, Felix (Little Felix) Bocchino, Joseph (Joey Pung) Pungitore, Eugene (Gino) Milano, Albert (Reds) Pontani, Michael (Micky) Ricciardi, Gerald (Jerry) Fusella, Joseph Sodano and Happy Bellina, his son Salvatore was promoted to captain by Nicodemo Scarfo.
Inherited criminal empire Edit
In March 1981, when Testa was twenty-five years old, his father Philip Testa was killed by a nail bomb consisting of six sticks TNT that was remotely operated as he unlocked the front door of his house. The explosion was so powerful that it blew Testa's father through the front door of his home. After the murder of his father, Testa became a protege of Nicodemo Scarfo and was thought of as a son to Scarfo and a brother to Phil Leonetti. Testa "inherited" most of his father's business, including a loan-sharking operation in South Philadelphia. He also developed a lucrative financial arrangement with several local drug dealers, including the Black Mafia that supplied parts of North Philadelphia and West Philadelphia ghettos. Testa maintained a residence at the shore near Atlantic City and kept a boat in Ventnor, New Jersey. His legitimate and illegitimate businesses made him a millionaire. Testa's father had left him an estate worth $800,000 that included a run-down bar in Ducktown, Atlantic City on a site where casino developer Donald Trump decided to build the Trump Plaza (Atlantic City) in 1984 at 2500 Boardwalk. Trump paid Testa $1.1 million for the right to tear the bar down.
Friendship with Eugene (Gino) Milano Edit
Eugene "Gino" Milano was introduced into the Scarfo organization by Salvatore. Gino is the older brother of Scarfo crime family associate Nicholas (Nicky the Whip) Milano who followed Gino into a life of organized crime with Testa. Reporter George Anastasia wrote, "Milano's loyalty was to Testa rather than to the organization (the Scarfo crime family). He really didn't know Scarfo, Leonetti or most of the other leaders in the family. He was Testa's friend as well as his "associate". Eugene worked as a bouncer at a Center City, Philadelphia restaurant where Salvatore had some connections. Milano's real job was to stay close to Salvatore, who at the time was avenging his father's murder". Milano was later be involved in the murders of Frank "Chickie" Narducci Sr. and Frankie "Flowers" D'alfonso with Testa.
Salvatore's Relationship with Frank Narducci Sr.'s sons Edit
In January 7, 1981, 50-year-old South Philadelphia resident Francis "Chickie" Narducci Sr., a long-time capo under Angelo Bruno was murdered by Salvie Testa and Joey Pungitore. His adopted son and namesake Frank Narducci, Jr. who was adopted by Narducci, Sr. when he was just a year old with his wife Arlin, and younger biological son Philip. Fellow mobsters Joseph Pungitore, and Joseph Grande were assigned as 'blockers', with Charles Iannece, Salvatore Testa and Eugene 'Gino' Milano as the shooters, and Nicholas Caramandi as the getaway driver. Narducci Sr. was shot ten times point bank in the face, neck and chest outside their South Philadelphia home. Mobster turned informant Nicholas Caramandi would later say that Nicodemo Scarfo had no problem recruiting Narducci Sr.'s sons on behalf of Testa because he didn't hold them responsible for what he called "their father's sins", helping set up Philip Testa to be murdered and Nick Caramandi said, "He (Scarfo) felt these kids were just victims of circumstances. They wasn't part of no plots. So Nicky made a speech that he would not hold any sons responsible for their father's actions. They probably knew what had happened but they'll never bring it up. They want to be gangsters too much." Frank (Frankie Jr) Narducci Jr. and Philip would later serve under Salvatore Testa as enforcers in his crew, the very person who ordered the death of their father.
Murder of Coco Cifelli Edit
In 1979 Salvatore, Salvatore Merlino and Robert (Bobby) Lumio murdered 31-year-old drug dealer Michael (Coco) Cifelli. He was murdered for selling drugs to the son of Frank Monte, a capo from Cinnaminson Township, New Jersey. Frank served under Philip Testa and later Nicodemo Scarfo. He oversaw illegal gambling operations in Atlantic City and New Jersey for the crime family. Michael Cifelli was gunned down by Testa and Salvatore (Chuckie) Merlino as he was talking on the phone in a telephone booth just inside a bar, Priori's, at 10th and Wolf Streets in Point Breeze, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Frank Monte was later promoted to be consigliere in 1981 by Nicodemo Scarfo.
Riccobene-Scarfo war Edit
An extremely violent individual, Testa committed 15 murders of the 28 deaths attributed to the Riccobene-Scarfo war. Two murders were that of Frank (Chickie) Narducci Sr. on January 7, 1982 and that of low level mob associate and "Fat Pete" Peter Casella's chauffer and bodyguard Rocco Marinucci on March 15, 1982. Rocco was the man who detonated the nail bomb that murdered Testa's father in 1981 at their family home. Exactly one year after the bombing, Marinucci's body was found in a parking lot on Federal Street in Southwark, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with bullet wounds to the neck, chest, and head. His mouth was stuffed with three large, unexploded cherry bombs. It was the work of Testa.
Italian Market shooting Edit
In June 1982, following an attempt on the life of Harry Riccobene by Salvatore Grande, Testa was attacked. He was sitting outside a restaurant at 9th Street and Christian Avenue at Lorenzo's Pizza in the Italian Market, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with Dean Heiser, finishing a dish of steamed clams when a big Ford sedan slowed down opposite him. From the passenger side window a sawed-off shotgun poked out, and there was a thudding explosion. Testa was caught full in the side with a load of buck shot that ripped into his legs and stomach and nearly severed his left arm. The Ford raced away down Ninth Street, swerving around cars and scattering shoppers the length of the market. A police car that had been behind it gave chase. The two cars careened through the narrow streets at seventy miles and hour, until finally the Ford hit a lamppost, skidded onto the sidewalk and flipped over. Vincent DeLuca and Joseph Pedulla, the two Riccobene soldiers who had killed Frank Monte, were pulled from the wreck and arrested.
They were released later that same day, but went into hiding. After a few days of hiding from Testa who they learned had survived, they turned themselves into the police for protective custody. After they were tried and convicted of the attempted murder on Testa, they offered to become government witnesses.
Courtship with Maria Merlino Edit
Maria Merlino, the daughter of Salvatore Merlino, sister of Joseph Merlino and niece of Lawrence Merlino had nursed the nearly dead Testa back to health after the Italian Market shooting, and they had been inseparable afterward. Nicodemo Scarfo drew on his contractor friends to rebuild the Testa home, vacant since the explosion that had killed Testa's father, Philip, as a wedding gift for the newlyweds. Testa didn't love Maria but saw the match as a way to gain power in the family. After being an underboss's son for twenty-five years he was used to being close to the top. One day he goes to Salvatore Merlino, who was the current underboss, and says, "I would like to go out with your daughter, take your daughter out."
Testa and Merlino were soon engaged, but they had decided to wait for Nicodemo Scarfo to come out of jail before they married. By that time Testa was in love with someone else who lived in an apartment at Ninth and Christian at the Italian Market, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and he didn't want to marry Merlino. He thought when Nicky was released from prison that Nicky would take the brunt of his not marrying Chuckie's daughter because of what a good job Testa had done during the Riccobene war. It is also rumored that he had struck Maria during their courtship and spit in the face of Salvatore Merlino during an argument.
The wedding was all planned and scheduled to be held in April 1984. They had bought gowns and had the church. They even bought special tablecloths. There were going to be over seven hundred guests. There were also talks of having pop singer Michael Jackson perform at the wedding celebration. The wedding ceremony was to be held at The Bellevue-Stratford Hotel in Center City, Philadelphia.
Merlino's father bought her a lot of jewellery and she was redoing the house with French toilets and Jacuzzis. Testa was old-fashioned and wanted to live in his father's footsteps. He didn't like these types of fancy possessions. This led to an argument between the two. Testa canceled the marriage two months before it was supposed to occur.
Salvatore Merlino, Maria's father, allegedly told Nicholas Caramandi over a dinner following their separation, "You know, I'm not mad because he didn't marry my daughter. If he would just take himself down and start all over again, he would be forgiven. You know, this thing comes first. If he didn't want to marry my daughter ... he coulda did it in a different way." Merlino had wanted Testa to relinquish his title as capo and become a mob soldier again but he did not.
Had Testa honored Salvatore Merlino's wishes to marry his daughter, he would have been the son-in-law to underboss Salvatore and Rita Merlino, and Salvatore's brother, Philadelphia crime family capo Lawrence Merlino and Phyllis Merlino, and brother-in-law to his son, Philadelphia crime family rival capo Joseph S. Merlino and Deborah Wells-Merlino.
Taking up the sport of tennis Edit
Testa had an athletic build from playing racquet ball and tennis at the Pier 30 Tennis Club in Penn's Landing where he played regularly, at which he was a member. He joined about eighteen months before his murder. Ray Mirra, manager of Pier 30 described Testa as personable and well liked by the tennis professionals and other members. He frequently attended staff birthday parties and contributed money for gifts. Although he sometimes joked about his organized crime connections, Testa seemed the opposite of his flashy mobster image; he wore understated tennis whites and bought a $135 racket, not an expensive model. Testa wore no jewelry and drove to the club in a non-descript mid-size car. Testa took tennis seriously, he joined the club as a beginner and rapidly progressed to the rank of advanced intermediate. In April of that year, the club's pros awarded Testa a trophy for being the "most improved" player. He said that it was his first trophy he had ever won for anything. It was the best he had done in any sport".
Another failed hit Edit
On December 10, 1982, four days after the murder of Harry Riccobene's brother, Robert, Testa was driving through South Philadelphia with three bodyguards. At Eleventh and Catherine streets in Washington Square West, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, another car swerved into his path, blocking him. Four Riccobene soldiers leaped from the car and opened fire. Testa and his men returned fire, and for several minutes the intersection was a combat zone. By the time the police arrived, the Riccobene men had driven off, no one had been hit. Testa and his bodyguards were questioned and released.
Encounter with Enrico Riccobene Edit
Enrico Riccobene, the 28-year-old son of Mario Riccobene, the brother of Harold, owned a jewelry store in Jewelers' Row, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on Sansom Street. Since the start of the battle between the Riccobene and Scarfo faction he never went to work without being armed and an escort of three or four bodyguards. On December 14, 1983, ten days before Christmas, Enrico opened the store accompanied by his bodyguards. A few minutes later he glanced out and saw Testa, Phil Leonetti and Lawrence (Yogi) Merlino walk slowly by. Testa paused, tapped on the glass and smiled at him. After the months of murders and weeks of fear, the sight of the three men were too much for Enrico. He had lost several of his uncles (Robert Riccobene) and his own father (Mario Riccobene) in the power struggle. He went into the back of the shop and shot himself in the head. Testa after hearing of the suicide said, "I don't have to kill people anymore ... I just show up, and they do the job themselves."
Tension with Scarfo Edit
In April 1984, he was featured on the front page of the The Wall Street Journal in an article by journalist James Bovard that described him as the "fastest rising star" in the Scarfo organization. Scarfo was jealous and worried that Testa was becoming too powerful within the family. Additionally, Testa's breaking off of his engagement to Maria insulted Salvatore Merlino. After the end of internal conflict with Harry Riccobene, Scarfo decided that he could afford to eliminate Testa. Andrew DelGiorno, Charles Iannece and Francis Iannarella went to Testa's ex-father-in-law, underboss Salvatore Merlino and Nicodemo Scarfo started to spread rumors that Testa was going to start his own gang and also that he was starting to take drugs.
During a benefit dinner for a local charity at Palumbo's Restaurant in South Philadelphia in April, around the same time the Wall Street Journal did their article on Testa's rising success. Nicodemo Scarfo took a table for himself and his top associates but when Testa arrived, he was told to sit elsewhere. Following the charity event, Testa was also not invited to a trip to Puerto Rico.
Nicholas Caramandi said, "Salvie was very cautious. He just felt bad vibes. Every time you shook his hand, he'd bring you in close with his right hand and just pat you down with his left hand from behind to see if you were carrying a gun. Caramandi said that the only way Salvatore could have saved himself at that point was to take off and disappear. "But that, apparently wasn't in the kid's makeup. Me and Charlie used to talk about it. We don't know why this fuckin' guy don't take off. We woulda loved to have told him, but we couldn't tell him... 'He was the type of guy who, if he knew for sure, woulda went after Chuckie (Salvatore Merlino) or Nicky Scarfo and tried to kill them. This kid woulda went down in a blaze of glory (Forced suicide). But he wasn't sure. He was aware. He was alert. But he wasn't sure."
Being given the kiss of death Edit
Salvatore's best friend and fellow made man in the Scarfo crime family Joseph Pungitore's aunt had died. Nicholas Caramandi said, "Joe Pungitore was Salvie Testa's best friend out of all the fellas. He's also a made guy and was one of Salvie's top guys. So there's no way Salvie's not going to come to the (Cato Funeral Home at Broad Street (Philadelphia)). But Salvie knows about funeral parlors (being used as a hit location), because it was used in one of the many botched attempts on Mario Riccobene's life. As Nicholas Caramandi explains what happened at the funeral parlor, "Nicky (Nicky Scarfo), Chucky (Salvatore Merlino) and Philip (Phil Leonetti) are ten feet away from me. I'm looking directly at them. Chuckie's standing there and I motion to Chuckie with my head, up and down, like, let's do it right now. But he waves me off. So when he does that, I go to the lounge and sit down. We were all tense and I couldn't understand what happened. I was right behind him (Salvatore Testa), ready to shoot him, he's talking to a guy at the bar. All I hadda do is go bing, right in the back of his head. Then about ten minutes later Tommy (Andrew Thomas DelGiorno) and Faffy (Francis Ianarella) come over and they tell me there's too much law outside. Too many cops... When we leave the funeral parlor, we all go downstairs outside and we're saying goodbye to everybody, members and nonmembers. I'm standing with Nicky, Chuckie, Philip, Tommy, Faffy and Charlie. Now when Salvie says goodbye, he shakes hands with all of us. Chuckie Merlino shakes his hand, grabs his head and kisses him on the lips... for like ten seconds. Tommy, Charlie, Faffy and me, we look at one another. We said, 'What the fuck. This guy's nuts. Salvie's gotta know now.' It was the kiss of death. 'We looked at the expression on Salvie. He was sorta stunned. He just couldn't figure out what the fuck was going on. But this is how crazy they (Salvatore Merlino and Nicky Scarfo) were. I mean, they wanted him to know."
On September 14, 1984, Scarfo commanded Testa's best friend, made man Joey Pungitore, to lure Testa into an ambush in the back room of the 'Too Sweet' candy store in Southwark, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on East Passyunk Avenue. Andrew DelGiorno and Francis "Faffy" Iannarella were put in charge of supervising the Testa murder, Nicholas Caramandi and Charles Iannece were going to be the shooters. But it was difficult, Testa was a professional hit man and knew all the tricks of the trade. He was extremely cautious and checked everyone who hugged him for a gun. The job seemed almost impossible and Little Nicky was getting restless.
So Tommy and Faffy brought Salvatore "Wayne" Grande and Joseph "Joey Pung" Pungitore into the conspiracy. "Joey Pung" was Testa's close friend, and would only go along with the job if he didn't have to pull the trigger. Salvatore Grande on the other hand jumped at the opportunity to put a bullet in Testa. Joseph Pungitore arranged a meeting with Testa. At that meeting in the back of a candy store Salvie greeted Wayne who was sitting on a couch in the back room. Salvie then turned to talk with Joe Pung; Wayne took out a gun from under the cushions on the couch and shot Testa in the back of his head. Wayne stood up to shoot Testa once more. Nicky the Crow, Charlie Iannece and Joe Grande helped clean up the scene and get Testa's corpse out of the store. Salvie's hogtied remains were found at the side of a dirt road in Gloucester Township, New Jersey. Nicodemo Scarfo had Nick Caramandi, Charlie Iannece and Joe Grande work on the murder. As soon as Testa turned around, Salvatore (Wayne) Grande shot him in the back of the head. After Testa fell to the floor he was shot again in the back of the head, killing him. Another crew later dumped his body in New Jersey along a roadside wrapped in a carpet with a rope garrotted around his neck.
Scarfo had requested that Testa be strangled to death, but with his size and considerable strength his killers considered this task too difficult. Nicodemo Scarfo and his nephew Phil Leonetti split up his empire, the trigger man Salvatore (Wayne) Grande received 25% of Testa's business, Andrew DelGiorno and Francis Iannarella were named acting capos for his crew and eventually would be promoted to capos themselves. Salvatore "Tory" Scafidi was given a $500-a-week job working as a numbers runner, and Charles White and Nicholas Caramandi were formally inducted into the Philadelphia mob.
Violent and insecure, Nicodemo Scarfo would continue murdering Philadelphia crime family members whom he feared or envied. Since the 1980s, many of the made men who later became government informants, including Nicholas Caramandi, Scarfo crime family underboss Phil Leonetti, and Polish-Italian capo Andrew DelGiorno, have confided that the murder of Testa marked the downfall of the Scarfo crime family regime over Philadelphia in many ways. Much of the family's trust with the Five Families of New York City was defeated, as Salvatore Testa, a respected member of the family and apparent successor to lead the family was killed for very little reason. Despite this, Nicholas Caramandi told in his autobiography how many associates, such as Phil Leonetti and Andrew DelGiorno, were enthusiastic about Testa's death leading up to the time of his murder because of their own increase of power in the family. In 1987, Nicodemo Scarfo was sentenced to life in prison for several murders.
In Testa's funeral procession on September 20, 1984, nearly 300 mourners crowded St. Paul's Catholic Church in the city's Italian Market section, only a block from where Testa survived an assassination attempt that left him seriously wounded in 1982. He was interred with his father Philip and mother Alfia at the family plot at Holy Cross Cemetery in Yeadon, Pennsylvania.