Frank Lucas (born September 9, 1930 in La Grange, North Carolina and raised in Greensboro, North Carolina)  is a former heroin dealer and organized crime boss who operated in Harlem during the late 1960s and early 1970s. He was particularly known for cutting out middlemen in the drug trade and buying heroin directly from his source in the Golden Triangle. Frank Lucas is popularly known for smuggling heroin using the coffins of dead American servicemen, a claim his South Asian associate, Leslie "Ike" Atkinson denies. His career was dramatized in the 2007 feature film American Gangster.
Early criminal careerEdit
Lucas claims that the incident that sparked his motivation into the life of crime was witnessing his 12-year-old cousin's murder at the hands of the KKK, for apparently "reckless eyeballing" (looking at a Caucasian woman), in Greensboro, North Carolina. He drifted through a life of petty crime until one particular occasion when he engaged in a fight with a former employer and, on advice of his mother, fled to New York. In Harlem he indulged in petty crime and pool hustling before he was taken under the wing of gangster Ellsworth "Bumpy" Johnson. His connection to Bumpy has come under some doubt, however. Lucas claimed to have been Johnson's driver for 15 years, although Johnson spent just 5 years out of prison before his death in 1968. And according to Johnson's widow, much of the narrative that Lucas claims actually belonged to another young hustler named Zach Walker, who lived with Bumpy and his family and later betrayed him.his coat and hat got him caught
Ascension in organized crimeEdit
After Johnson's death, Lucas traveled around and came to the realization that to be successful he would have to break the monopoly that the Italian mafia held in New York. Traveling to Stilwell, Oklahoma, he eventually made his way to Jack's American Star Bar, an R&R hangout for black soldiers. It was here that he met former U.S. Army sergeant Leslie "Ike" Atkinson, a country boy from Goldsboro, North Carolina, who happened to be married to one of Lucas' cousins. Lucas is quoted as saying, "Ike knew everyone over there, every black guy in the Army, from the cooks on up."
Lucas denies putting the drugs among the corpses of American soldiers. Instead he flew in a North Carolina carpenter to Bangkok and: “We had him make up 28 copies of the government coffins... except we fixed them up with false bottoms, big enough to load up with six, maybe eight kilos...It had to be snug. You couldn't have shit sliding around. Ike was very smart, because he made sure we used heavy guys' coffins. He didn't put them in no skinny guy's..."  
Southeast Asia drug connectionsEdit
However, Atkinson, nicknamed "Sergeant Smack" by the DEA, has said he "shipped drugs in furniture, not caskets". Whatever method he used, Lucas smuggled the drugs into the country with this direct link from Asia. Lucas said that he made US$1 million per day selling drugs on 116th Street. Federal judge Sterling Johnson, who was special narcotics prosecutor in New York at the time of Lucas' crimes, called Lucas' operation "one of the most outrageous international dope-smuggling gangs ever, an innovator who got his own connections outside the U.S. and then sold the narcotics himself in the street." He had connections with the Sicilian and Mexican mobs, holding an enormous monopoly on the heroin market in Manhattan. In an interview, Lucas said, "I wanted to be rich. I wanted to be Donald Trump rich, and so help me God, I made it."
"Blue Magic" heroin & "The Country Boys"Edit
Lucas only trusted relatives (which included two of his brothers) and close friends from North Carolina to handle his various heroin operations. Lucas thought this circle of contacts, which came to be known as "The Country Boys", were trusted by by Frank, because he felt that they were less likely to steal from him and be tempted by various vices in the big city. His heroin, "Blue Magic" was 100% pure when shipped from Thailand and sold at 98% to 100% purity on the street. Lucas has been quoted as saying that his worth was "something like $52 million", most of it in Cayman Islands banks. Added to this is "maybe 1,000 keys (kilograms), (2,200 pounds), of dope on hand" with a potential profit of no less than $300,000 per kilo (per 2.2 lb).
This huge profit margin allowed him to buy property all over the country, including office buildings in Detroit, and apartments in Los Angeles and Miami. He also bought a several-thousand-acre ranch in North Carolina on which he ranged 300 head of Black Angus cows, including a breeding bull worth $125,000. Lucas rubbed shoulders with the elite in entertainment, politics, and crime, meeting Howard Hughes at one of Harlem's best clubs in his day Though he owned several mink and chinchilla coats and other accessories, Frank Lucas much preferred to dress very casually and corporately as to not attract attention to himself. He fathered seven children, including a daughter, Francine Lucas-Sinclair, and a son, Frank Lucas, Jr. When he was arrested in the mid-1970s, all of Lucas' assets were seized.
“The properties in Chicago, Detroit, Miami, North Carolina, Puerto Rico — they took everything. My lawyer told me they couldn't take the money in the offshore accounts, and I had all my money stored in the Cayman Islands. But that's BS; they can take it. Take my word for it. If you got something, hide it, 'cause they can go to any bank and take it.”
Arrests and releasesEdit
In January 1975, Lucas' house in Teaneck, New Jersey was raided by a task force consisting of 10 agents from Group 22 of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency and 10 New York Police Department detectives attached to the Organized Crime Control Bureau (OCCB). In his house authorities found $584,683 in cash. He was later convicted of both Federal and New Jersey state drug violations. The following year he was sentenced to 70 years in prison. Once convicted, Lucas provided evidence that led to more than 100 further drug-related convictions. For his safety in 1977, Lucas and his family were placed in the United States Federal Witness Protection Program.  In 1981, after 5 years in custody, his 40-year Federal term and 30-year state term were reduced to time served plus lifetime parole. In 1984, he was caught and convicted of trying to exchange one ounce of heroin and $13,000 for one kilogram of cocaine. He was defended by his former prosecutor Richie Roberts and received a sentence of seven years. He was released from prison in 1991.
- ↑ "U.S. Jury Convicts Heroin Informant". The New York Times. August 25, 1984. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A04E7D71338F936A1575BC0A962948260. Retrieved 2008-04-09.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 "Drug Dealer Gets New Prison Term". The New York Times. September 11, 1984. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C02E3D81038F932A2575AC0A962948260. Retrieved 2008-04-09.
- ↑ Janelle Oswald (2007-12-09). "The Real American Gangster". voice-online. http://www.voice-online.co.uk/content.php?show=12509. Retrieved 2008-03-08. "She spent five years in prison for aiding her husband's narcotic smuggling trade. Having to get used to the public life again after living like a 'ghost' since her release, the making of her partner's life on the big screen has brought back many memories, some good and some bad."
- ↑ Frank Lucas Biography, The Bio channel, accessed 2012-02-16.
- ↑ "The Return of Superfly" New York Magazine, 14 August 2000.
- ↑ American Gangster True Story - The real Frank Lucas, Richie Roberts for Chasingthefrog.com ,accessed 2012-02-16.
- ↑ The Raid in Teaneck, Crime magazine, by Ron Chepesiuk and Anthony Gonzalez, accessed 2012-2-16.
- ↑ Teaneck raid, Crime Magazine article, first accessed February 20, 2008.
- ↑ NY Times article, August 25, 1984.
- ↑ http://www.newjerseynewsroom.com/nation/julianna-farrait-wife-of-american-gangster-frank-lucas-arrested-for-trying-to-sell-cocaine "Julianna Farrait, wife of ”American Gangster” Frank Lucas, arrested for trying to sell cocaine", newjerseynewsroom.com article by Alicia Cruz, May 24, 2010.]
- ↑ "The daughter of American Gangster Frank Lucas speaks at Ambler" by Sarada Jailal, The Temple News, February 25, 2008
- ↑ NY Times article, August 25, 1984.
- ↑ NY Times article, September 11, 1984.