Although various Triad-based groups had been in existence following the California Gold Rush, the first modern day Chinese-American Tongs are formed by Chinese immigrants for mutual protection in response to the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. Chicago Police Chief William McGarigle, in the pay of Chicago crime lord Michael Cassius McDonald, is indicted for graft later fleeing to Canada.

Tony Matranga takes control of the New Orleans Black Hand after former leader Giuseppi Esposito is deported in 1881.


Arnold Rothstein, Chicago Crime Syndicate leader.

Max Zwerbach "Kid Twist", Eastman Gang leader and New York gangster.

February - Johnny Torrio, Chicago Mafia Don and Chicago syndicate leader.

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